Energy Transition. Hydrogen. Sector coupling.

Value Chain


Value Chain


Hydrogen will play a major role in reaching the next level of energy transition – for both regional and global organizations. We offer our expertise in all areas of the green hydrogen value chain.

Value Chain

The value chain of green hydrogen describes the single steps from the origin towards the use of the energy carrier: green electricity production, H2 production, H2 distribution and H2 storage as well as various H2 applications.

Green Electricity


H2 Distribution / H2 Storage

H2 Applications


What is the energy transition simply explained?

The term “energy transition” describes a transformation process of the energy system. The proportions of fossil fuels are continuously being replaced by increasing shares of renewable energies.

What is hydrogen simply explained?

Hydrogen is the most common chemical element in the universe and a component of many molecular compounds, such as water (H2O). In a natural environment, hydrogen on earth always occurs in bound form. Only when energy is added, hydrogen is separated from other chemical compounds and thus made usable as an energy carrier. For this reason, hydrogen is called a secondary energy carrier.

What is sector coupling simply explained?

The term “sector coupling” describes the close linking of the electricity, mobility, heat and industry sectors. Until now, these sectors have acted quite independently of one another. Hydrogen and sector coupling can be used to balance energy supply and demand across the boundaries of the individual sectors. This enables the development of great synergy potentials with regard to energy efficiency and climate protection.

What are the properties of hydrogen?

Under normal conditions, hydrogen is a colorless and odorless gas. It is lighter than air and rises. Two properties are of great importance for its use as an energy carrier. At 33.3 kWh / kg, hydrogen has a high gravimetric energy density, i.e. a high energy content related to e.g. 1 kg H2. This value is about three times higher than that of gasoline. At 3.0 kWh / Nm3, the volumetric energy density, i.e. the energy content related to e.g. 1 standard cubic meter of H2, is around a factor of 3000 worse than that of gasoline. For this reason, a lot of effort is made to store and transport hydrogen, for example in the form of compression or liquefaction.

Is hydrogen dangerous?

Every energy carrier is dangerous if its energy is released unintentionally and uncontrolled. This is also the case with hydrogen. For this reason, large parts of the engineering sciences are concerned with handling different types of energy carriers appropriately and safely. The safe handling of electricity, natural gas or liquid fuels is taken for granted today in commercial or private environments. In the industrial sector, this already applies to hydrogen. For private use, new products are constantly reaching market maturity and making the simple and safe handling of hydrogen a tangible experience for end users as well.

How can (green) hydrogen be produced?

Hydrogen is already being produced on a large industrial scale on the basis of fossil raw materials. Hydrogen is thermally split off from the hydrocarbon compounds of the raw material. This produces CO2 as a by-product. A well established process is natural gas steam reforming.

Hydrogen can also be produced CO2-free via the electrochemical process of electrolysis. Using green electricity, the water molecule (H2O) is split into its components hydrogen and oxygen without causing CO2 emissions directly during electrolysis or indirectly during upstream electricity production.

How much electricity does it take to produce 1 kg of hydrogen?

Hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis by supplying the system with electricity and water. The efficiency of electrolysis defines the amount of electricity needed to produce 1 kg of hydrogen. It is usually in the range of 60-70%. Thus, with reference to the energy content of hydrogen, which is 33.3 kWh/kg, it takes about 50-55 kWh of electricity to produce 1 kg of hydrogen. For the production of 1 kg H2, 9 kg of water are needed.

What does 1 kg of hydrogen cost to produce?

Hydrogen can be produced on the basis of the established natural gas steam reforming process for approx. 1 to 1.5 €/kg. Due to a higher pricing of the caused CO2 emissions, the hydrogen production costs of this process will increase in perspective.

The production costs via the CO2 free process of electrolysis are about 5 €/kg. These costs are strongly influenced by the investment costs and the utilization of the electrolysis, the purchase costs of the green electricity and the applicable levies. The imminent industrialization of electrolysis production suggests cost degressions.

The production costs of hydrogen do not include the costs for storage, transport and delivery of the hydrogen.


As founder and managing director, I have been working full-time with hydrogen since 2011. After studying mechanical engineering, I worked in the development of hydrogen tank systems for fuel cell vehicles at BMW AG. Following a part-time MBA course, I was given responsibility for alternative fuels in BMW’s corporate strategy. Based on my professional experience with a technical and strategic-political perspective, I am absolutely certain: achieving the climate targets can only succeed with hydrogen!

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